This volume provides a practical introduction to the use of high-pressure techniques in chemistry and physics. The authors provide details of the experimental methods and equipment needed to carry out observations and measurements at very high pressures. The pressures involved range from a few thousand bars for some chemical studies to hundreds of thousands of bars for some physical experimentation. High-pressure techniques may be used to learn more about the structure of matter and mechanisms of chemical reactions. This volume includes detailed descriptions of equipment to measure the following criteria under high pressure conditions: compressibility and equations of state; dielectric constants and conductance; viscocity; X-ray and neutron diffraction; optical absorption and luminescence; Mossbauer spectra; NMR. IR. and UV spectra; molecular dynamics; kinetics; organic and inorganic synthesis; electro-chemistry and electrophoresis. Applications such as the preservation of food are also discussed. High-pressure techniques in chemistry and physics: a practical approach is a comprehensive and detailed guide for all those engaged in high-pressure research and a valuable source of information for newcomers to the field. Each chapter contains useful toptics on specific equipment and techniques, as well as step-by-step protocols, essential background information, and key citations in the literature.
Automated Deduction - A Basis For Applications Volume I Foundations - Calculi And Methods Volume Ii Systems And Implementation Techniques Volume Iii Applications
The nationwide research project 'Deduktion', funded by the 'Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)' for a period of six years, brought together almost all research groups within Germany engaged in the field of automated reasoning. Intensive cooperation and exchange of ideas led to considerable progress both in the theoretical foundations and in the application of deductive knowledge. This three-volume book covers these original contributions moulded into the state of the art of automated deduction. The three volumes are intended to document and advance a development in the field of automated deduction that can now be observed all over the world. Rather than restricting the interest to purely academic research, the focus now is on the investigation of problems derived from realistic applications. In fact industrial applications are already pursued on a trial basis. In consequence the emphasis of the volumes is not on the presentation of the theoretical foundations of logical deduction as such, as in a handbook; rather the books present the concepts and methods now available in automated deduction in a form which can be easily accessed by scientists working in applications outside of the field of deduction. This reflects the strong conviction that automated deduction is on the verge of being fully included in the evolution of technology. Volume I focuses on basic research in deduction and on the knowledge on which modern deductive systems are based. Volume II presents techniques of implementation and details about system building. Volume III deals with applications of deductive techniques mainly, but not exclusively, to mathematics and the verification of software. Each chapter was read by two referees, one an international expert from abroad and the other a knowledgeable participant in the national project. It has been accepted for inclusion on the basis of these review reports. Audience: Researchers and developers in software engineering, formal methods, certification, verification, validation, specification of complex systems and software, expert systems, natural language processing.
This is the first modern book to treat inorganic and organometallic mass spectrometry simultaneously. It is textbook and handbook in one; as a textbook it introduces the techniques and gives hints on how to apply the various techniques, as a handbook it lists all available ionization techniques for just about any given compound. The book also includes non-mathematical explanations of how modern MS instruments work <p> <i>Mass Spectrometry of Inorganic and Organometallic Compounds</i> will inspire the synthetic inorganic and organometallic chemist with the confidence to apply some of the new techniques to their characterization problems.
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