When men of knowledge impart this knowledge, I do not mean they will convince your reason. I mean they will awaken in you the faith that it is so. - Sri Krishna, Bhagavadgita BACKGROUND The use of computers has led to significant productivity increases in the en- gineering industry. Most ofthe computer-aided engineering applications were . restricted to algorithmic computations, such as finite element programs and circuit analysis programs. However, a number ofproblems encountered in en- gineering are not amenable to purely algorithmic solutions. These problems are often ill-structured; the term ill-structured problems is used here to de- note problems that do not have a clearly defined algorithmic solution. An experienced engineer deals with these ill-structured problems using his/her judgment and experience. The knowledge-based systems (KBS) technology, which emerged out of research in artificial intelligence (AI), offers a method- ologyto solve these ill-structuredengineering problems. The emergenceofthe KBS technology can be viewed as the knowledge revolution: other important events that led to increased productivity are the industrial revolution (17th century); the invention of the transistor and associated developments (first half of the 20th century); and the world-wide web (towards the end of the 20th century). Kurzweil, in a lecture at M. LT on December 3, 1987, linked the progress of automation to two industrial revolutions: the first industrial PREFACE xxxii revolution leveraged our physical capabilities, whereas the second industrial revolution - the knowledge revolution - is expected leverage oUr mental ca- pabilities.
Surrogate models expedite the search for promising designs by standing in for expensive design evaluations or simulations. They provide a global model of some metric of a design (such as weight, aerodynamic drag, cost, etc.), which can then be optimized efficiently. "Engineering Design via Surrogate Modelling" is a self-contained guide to surrogate models and their use in engineering design. The fundamentals of building, selecting, validating, searching and refining a surrogate are presented in a manner accessible to novices in the field. Figures are used liberally to explain the key concepts and clearly show the differences between the various techniques, as well as to emphasize the intuitive nature of the conceptual and mathematical reasoning behind them. More advanced and recent concepts are each presented in stand-alone chapters, allowing readers to concentrate on material pertinent to their current design problems, and concepts are clearly demonstrated using simple design problems. This collection of advanced concepts (visualization, constraint handling, coping with noisy data, gradient-enhanced modelling, multi-fidelity analysis and multiple objectives) represents an invaluable reference manual for engineers and researchers active in the area. "Engineering Design via Surrogate Modelling" is complemented by a suite of MATLAB[registered] codes, allowing readers to apply all the techniques presented to their own design problems. By applying statistical modelling to engineering design, this book bridges the gap between the engineering and statistics communities. It will appeal to postgraduates and researchers across the academic engineering design community as well as to practicing design engineers. This title provides an inclusive and practical guide to using surrogates in engineering design. It presents the fundamentals of building, selecting, validating, searching and refining a surrogate model. It guides the reader through the practical implementation of a surrogate-based design process using a set of case studies from real engineering design challenges.
Re-EngineeringoftheDamagedBrainandSpinalCord isdedicatedtoTetsuoKanno,M. D. ProfessorofNeurosurgery Bypresenting theoriginal papers thatmakeupthis thefeaturesofthelocalmedicallandscapeinthe- third supplement we wish to make a further contri- gionswheretheyareenacted. Whatismore,progr- bution to the issue of functional rehabilitation, this sivenew?ndingsmustbealsosubjectedtoafrequent soimportantandfascinatingmodernareaofresearch revision. Ontopofthis,itshouldnotbeforgottenthat inthe?eldofneurosciences. Thecongresspaperswe even when committal therapy guidelines are c- haveselectedconstituteagoodre?ectionofthetrans- sistentlyapplied,thereareconsiderablevariationsin disciplinary objectives. The literature references are therangeofpotentialcomplicationsandintheo- designedasaguidetoleadtheinterestedreadertoa comeofprospectivecontrolledmulti-centreandmul- deeperandmoredetailedunderstandingoftheindi- nationalstudiesontheissueofqualitymanagement. vidualissues. Functionalrehabilitationhasbeenanoriginaltask The demand for "evidence-based medicine" is well ofneurosurgeryfromtheveryoutset. The1990shave justi?ed; however, it rapidly comes up against the enteredtheannalsofbrainresearchasthe"Decadeof limitsoffeasibility,especiallywherecontrolledthe- theBrain". Sincethentherehasbeenaneverstronger peuticstudiesareconcerned. TheCochrancollection growthofneuroscienti?cinterestworldwide,accom- of high-quality evidence-based healthcare databases paniedbysubstantial?nancialengagement. Thishas hasthusfarbeenofnohelptousindrawingupthe- primarily resulted in advances in basic neuro- peutic recommendations for the re-engineering of biologicalandneurophysiologicalresearchandalsoin brain and spinal-cord lesions. Today as ever, the thegrowthofneuroscienti?cknowledgeaboutbasic opinion of experts and empirically based medical mechanismsformotor control,paincontrol,aware- treatment and posttraumatic neurorehabilitation ness, cognition, learning and memory. The conse- continuetooccupyanindispensablepositionforthe quencemustbetoensurethattheadvancesmadeinthe everydayclinicalpracticeofneurosurgicalandneu- neuroscienti?cresearchareaareadequatelyexpanded traumatological therapies. Promising adjunct - intopracticalneurosurgicalcareandre-engineeringof proachesincludeneuropharmacology,forcascadesof brainandspinalcordlesionsandtoensureuponnew molecular interactions are known to be underlying approaches. Following this a fundamental path will activity-dependent plasticity and skills learning, as resultinanimprovedandmoree%ocientpreventionin many of these processes involve the major tra- thefuture,themeasuresthatstandrightatthefore- mitters. Furthermore,biologicalinterventionsby- front of all rehabilitation principles, meaning that ingendogenousneuronsandgliaaswellasexogenous conventionalconceptsmustbemodi?edtokeeppace stemcells,bone-marrowcells,macrophages,andother withthemoretask-speci?c,intensive,andprogressive types may promote the regeneration of nerve cells, demands. In this connection a series of guidelines, tissue, and neural circuitry. Class one studies have recommendations, and expert opinions and also beenmade,andnowclasstwostudieshavebeeni- algorithms have been elaborated by national and tiated, for example in connection with acute spinal international expert panels and multidisciplinary as- cord injury (SCI). The clinical application of fu- sociationsfortheacutemedicalcareofpatients.
This book presents a new research agenda for improvements in Quality of Life research. It includes topics such as:
-Studying QoL in particular subpopulations and selected subgroups
-Disentangling the difficult task of identifying determinants of QoL
-Perfectionating the measurement of conceptual dimensions
-Defining new indicators able to measure and monitor particular social conditions and shows that these are not separated fields of studies but intersect each other and produce different outcomes which can be with difficulty classifiable, consistent with the idea of the complexity of our reality.
The volume presents micro perspectives by taking into account the macro situation through both qualitative and quantitative approaches.
This book presents the most important applications of probablistic and statistical approaches and procedures to structural engineering.
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